The microbiological laboratory on the basis of “Institute of Preclinical Research” Ltd. was designed and equipped in accordance with the Sanitary and Epidemiological Regulations of SP 1.3.2322-08 “Safety of work with microorganisms of III-IV pathogenicity groups (hazards) and causative agents of parasitic diseases”.
License No. 47.01.05.001.Л.000001.04.18 of 20.04.2018 for carrying out activities in the field of the use of pathogens of human and animal infectious diseases (with the exception of the case if the indicated activity is carried out for medical purposes) and genetically engineered organisms III and IV the degree of potential danger in closed systems.
Microbiological laboratory works with microorganisms of III-IV pathogenicity groups, including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, dermatomycetes, yeast and mold fungi.
The laboratory identified three main activities:
– Determination of antimicrobial activity in vivo in small laboratory animals with experimental infection with various pathogenic agents.
– Determination of antimicrobial activity in vitro on test strains of microorganisms.
– Specialized services for nurseries and vivaria of laboratory animals (bacteriological monitoring of animal health and the environment).
Determination of the antimicrobial activity of the test samples under in vivo conditions
In the laboratory of microbiology, a zone for maintaining and working with small laboratory animals (mice, rats, guinea pigs, gerbils) was designed and equipped in individually ventilated cells that provide isolation of animals from the environment and protection of personnel.
Microbiological studies in animals make it possible to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy in the clinical way of using anti-bacterial and antifungal medicines, pro- and prebiotics, adsorbents, immunomodulators.
Experimental models: acute generalized infection in small animals; chronic septicopyemia (staphylococcal); pneumonia with generalization of infection; experimental pyelonephritis; Clostridial anaerobic infections, Helicobacter pylori and others.
Determination of antimicrobial activity in vitro on test strains of microorganisms
Determination of the antimicrobial activity of the test samples (chemical compounds, etc.) under in vitro conditions.
– Evaluation of the spectrum of action and the degree of anti-bacterial and antifungal activity in vitro antibacterial agents and antifungal drugs. Determination of the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration), MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration), MPC (minimum fungicidal concentration) for reference strains and clinical isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, dermatomycetes, yeast and mold fungi;
– Multidrug assessment;
– Speed of formation of resistance to new compounds;
– Study of targets and mechanisms of antibacterial action of compounds;
– Evaluation of the activity of reproducible drugs.
Bacteriological monitoring of the environment and animal health
Bacteriological monitoring of the environment includes monitoring efficiency of disinfection of premises and inventory, bacteriological evaluation of air and water quality.
Bacteriological monitoring of the health of laboratory animals is carried out in rinses, scrapings, cadaver, obtained from animals in accordance with international recommendations FELASA..2014.
- Kryshen K.L., Muzhikyan A.A., Alyakrinskaya A.A., Kovaleva M.A., Makarova M.N., Makarov V.G. Intracutaneous injection of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria into the scapophoccular angle of the auricle as a model of acne in laboratory animals // International Veterinary Journal. – 2017, No. 1. – C. 84-91. [Full text is available in Russian].
- Borovkova К., Kryshen А., Kryshen К., Petrova А.V., Makarova М. Features of working with laboratory animals in microbiological laboratory. Laboratory Animals for Science. – 2019, №1. – С. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.29296/2618723X-2019-01-09 SUMMARY. Standardization of experimental conditions is the main criterion for obtaining qualitative results. For many decades, laboratory animals have been an integral part of biomedical research. The use of animals in pharmacological experiments is justified in particular when evaluating the antimicrobial activity of drugs and substances, since in vivo results may differ significantly from in vitro tests. In the modern scientific community, the design of experiments should comply with ethical principles. Particular attention is paid to the quality of animals. The laboratory should have a program for monitoring the health of animals; animals should be taken into the experiment with a known microbiological status. Animal welfare conditions are also important. In microbiological studies using pathogenic biological agents (PBA), the main criterion is to protect personnel and the environment from infected animals and their waste products. From this point of view, keeping animals in an individually ventilated system is optimal. Personnel with medical, veterinary, biological and other education and relevant specialization courses may be allowed to work with the PBA of the III-IV pathogenicity groups. Trained staff under the supervision of a veterinarian carries out animal manipulations. All procedures within the microbiological laboratory must be conducted in compliance with the requirements of biological safety. The choice of a model of an experiment on the infection of animals can be justified by conducting pilot studies. In this case, the researcher needs to take into account a number of features: the sensitivity of the animal, the route of infection, the tropism of microorganisms to certain tissues and systems, and, in fact, obtaining an experimental infectious process to clinical signs similar to humans. Thus, conducting experiments with infected animals requires a licensed microbiology laboratory equipped with the necessary equipment and materials, optimal animal welfare conditions, qualified and trained personnel, as well as scientific knowledge. Compliance with all the rules will allow to competently plan microbiological research with obtaining reliable quality results [Full text is available in Russian].